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EASSRR Vol. 28, No. 2 June. 2012

EASSRR Vol. 28, No. 2 June. 2012

Author: OSSREA
Year: 2012
Table Of Contents:
  • Trends and Perceived Determinants of HIV/AIDS In Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana Matlhogonolo Bene and Michael Bernard K. Darkoh

  • Market Access and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Kewot Woreda of North Shewa Muluken Elias and Workneh Negatu

  • An Analysis of Organisational Commitment by Academic Professionals in Tertiary Institutions in Zimbabwe Frank Gwavuya

  • The Synergistic Effects of Socio-Economic Factors on the Risk of HIV Infection: A Comparative Study of Two Sub-Cities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Assefa Tolera Sori


Abstract: TRENDS AND PERCEIVED DETERMINANTS OF HIV/AIDS IN RURAL AREAS: THE CASE OF THAMAGA AND SURROUNDING VILLAGES, BOTSWANA by Matlhogonolo Bene and  Michael Bernard K. Darkoh

Abstract:   

This paper examines the trends and perceived determinants of HIV/AIDS in Thamaga and its surrounding villages of Gakgatla, Kumakwane, and Mankgodi. Data was collected mainly through interviewer-administered questionnaires which were applied to a sample of 145 respondents from the general public and 61 people living with AIDS in the villages. The results of the study showed that cohorts of ages 30 and above generally had higher infection rates. Females had a higher number living with HIV than men. Deaths of people living with AIDS were steadily increasing in the study area. The primary causes of the epidemic were poverty and relative wealth. Alcohol and drug abuse, multiple partners, lack of HIV testing and condom use, commercial sex work, ignorance, illiteracy, culture and religion, were perceived by respondents as the proximate driving factors of the epidemic.



MARKET ACCESS AND LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION IN RURAL ETHIOPIA: EVIDENCE FROM KEWOT WOREDA OF NORTH SHEWA by Muluken Elias and Workneh Negatu


Abstract:   

The aim of this study was to examine the relation between market access and livelihood diversification in rural areas of Kewet woreda (district) in North Shewa. The data for the study were gathered through farm household survey. The Logit Regression Model was used to identify the determinants of market access to both rural and town markets. The findings show that households’ access to markets is constrained, inter alia, by location, distance, availability of infrastructure, and cropping pattern. The Logit Regression analysis showed that market access is negatively and significantly affected by distance. Households who reside in remote areas from market centres were found to be the least diversifier of means of livelihood. The findings imply the importance of market centres development for diversification of rural economy.

AN ANALYSIS OF ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT BY ACADEMIC PROFESSIONALS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ZIMBABWE by Frank Gwavuya


Abstract:   

The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract, or the psychological environment created by an economic down turn in Zimbabwe. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes which stem from the threatened business environment. The target population for this study consisted of 100 lecturers working at three state universities, namely Bindura University of Science Education, Chinhoyi University of Technology, and Masvingo State University. The results indicated that an increase in the number of positive human resource management (HRM) practices reported by respondents correlated with a decrease in violation and breach of the psychological contract.



THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE RISK OF HIV INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO SUB-CITIES IN ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA by Assefa Tolera Sori

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore the relationship between HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk factors perception and the risk of HIV infection in Ethiopia. The study used a comparative approach and both primary (quantitative and qualitative) and secondary data were used. The data show social and economic factors (income, education, gender inequality and inadequate health infrastructures) are important variables influencing people’s vulnerability to HIV infection; and poor women are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour despite awareness about the risk of HIV infection. The poor neighbourhood provides the “path of least resistance” (Lindegger and Wood 1995,7). The paper argues that awareness alone is not sufficient in bringing about sexual behaviour change, since change/engaging in risky behaviours are essentially social behaviours occurring within specific social, cultural and economic settings. [The paper is] a modest contribution to the ‘structural violence approach’ (Farmer 1997; 2005) that emphasizes broader cultural, socio-economic and political factors in HIV/AIDS research and intervention programmes.




Publisher: OSSREA
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