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EASSRR Vol. 22, No. 1 , Jan. 2006

EASSRR Vol. 22, No. 1 , Jan. 2006

Author: OSSREA
Year: 2006
Table Of Contents:

Science, technology and institutional co-operation in Africa:
From pre-colonial to colonial science


Frank K Teng-Zeng


The evolution of intuitions and rules governing communal Grazing lands in Botswana 

Patricia M. Makepe


Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) finance in Ethiopia: Empirical evidence 

Gebrehiwot Ageba and Wolday Amha


Income risk and crop production patterns of small-scale farmers in eastern Oromiya region of Ethiopia 

Bekabil Fufa and R.M. Hassan


Analysis of institutional solid waste management in Gweru, Zimbabwe 

S. Jerie

Abstract:

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INSTITUTIONAL CO-OPERATION IN AFRICA:
FROM PRE-COLONIAL TO COLONIAL SCIENCE


Abstract
This paper covers two phases of the history of science, technology and institutional co-operation in Africa - pre-colonial and colonial. It is structured into three sections. Section one looks at pre-colonial science and technology (S&T) and points out that most discussions on the socio-economic analysis of S&T in Africa often neglect the pre-colonial phase, even though indigenous knowledge is important. Section two deals with the colonial phase in which the S&T activities of the British, French and other colonial powers are discussed. The third section looks at the establishment of inter-territorial co-operation in S&T activities during the colonial era and the eventual breakdown of effective S&T co-operation among the newly independent countries in Africa.
 
 

THE EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS AND RULES GOVERNING COMMUNAL GRAZING LANDS IN BOTSWANA

Patricia M. Makepe
 
Abstract
This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that occurred during the colonial period, and was later reinforced by a newly independent government, increased market activity, high population pressure and other changes. While privatization has been the most popular policy prescription to address the problem of resource overuse, this paper highlights the potential role collective action can play in addressing the problem of resource overuse as part of a community based resource management strategy in parts of the country with poor ecological conditions and high population density.
 
 
MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES (MSEs) FINANCE IN ETHIOPIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
 
Gebrehiwot Ageba  and Wolday Amha
 
Abstract

 

This paper presents evidence on the state of micro and small enterprises (MSE) finance in Ethiopia from a survey of 1000 MSEs in six major towns conducted by the authors1. The survey generated a rich data set in terms of coverage and detail on MSEs in Ethiopia, allowing in depth analysis of issues. This paper deals with the issue of MSE finance and is the first empirical work on trade credit in Ethiopia. It suggests a new venue to channel funds to MSEs by linking support to MSEs, suppliers credit and bank lending.

It shows that friends/relatives, suppliers credit, and Iqub (rotating saving and credit associations) are the most important sources of finance in that order, with moneylenders used very rarely. Default on informal loans, contrary to the common view, is high. Participation (i.e. receiving and/or extending) in trade credit is wide spread. The amount involved (in both stock and flow terms) is also relatively high. Trade credit appears to be used as a substitute for bank loans. Contrary to the common belief that trade credit occurs between people with strong social ties, most MSEs that granted trade credit and those that received suppliers credit characterised their relation as ‘business only’. More than half of the MSEs that granted trade credit also received suppliers credit whose amount exceeded what they received, suggesting that suppliers credit is being passed on to customers. Suppliers credit thus avails itself as a potential instrument for banks to channel finance to MSEs to improve their access to modern machinery/equipment/tools. This established practice could be extended to equipment-supplier-credit and/or equipment-leasing.

INCOME RISK AND CROP PRODUCTION PATTERNS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN EASTERN OROMIYA REGION OF ETHIOPIA

 

Bekabil Fufa and R. M. Hassan

Abstract

Income risk associated with crop production was analysed using the Quadratic Risk Programming Model for users and non-users of maize production technologies in Dadar district in Ethiopia. The E-V results revealed that both categories of farmers have the same degree of risk aversion as reflected by the degree of risk aversion coefficient ( ). In addition, the optimisation model results showed that improved maize production is associated with higher income risk as no more than the minimum subsistence constraint was chosen under higher degrees of risk aversion. While an increase in fertilizer prices reduced maize area cultivated for package users, the sensitivity analysis results for increases in maize prices showed a substantial rise in the area allocated to improved maize. However, for increased maize prices, area allocated to maize remained at subsistence level for non-users of the package. The development and promotion of new agricultural technologies need to take into account the yield and income risks associated with maize production in the area. In addition, expansion of rural road infrastructure, the promotion of post-harvest crop storage technologies and food processing industries should be given emphasis as strategies to stabilize prices and reduce income variability arising from crop production in the area.

ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GWERU, ZIMBABWE

S. Jerie

 

Abstract

Of all environmental problems that have come into focus in Gweru, institutional solid waste management has been the slowest to develop either direction or regulatory mechanisms. This study examines the characteristics of waste generated, and the effectiveness of the waste management system in the institutions. Measurements were used to determine the quantities of waste generated, and interviews and questionnaires were employed to assess the soundness of the system. The general picture is that significant quantities of waste are generated in the institutional sector, but there are no sound practices for managing the waste. This paper attempts to provide a framework for policy and planning strategies relating to solid waste management in public and private institutions in Gweru. Presently, institutional solid waste management is an area in which our ignorance still exceeds our knowledge. 

 

 

 


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