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EASSRR Vol. 21, No. 1 Jan. 2005

EASSRR Vol. 21, No. 1 Jan. 2005

Author: OSSREA
Year: 2005
Table Of Contents:

Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism:
An exaple from Uganda’s Gorilla tourism 


Petra Andersson, Sara Crone, Jesper Stage and Jorn Stage


Biofuel consumption, household level tree planning and its implications for environmental management in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia

Woldeamlak Bewket


Institutional constraints as “Rules of the Game”:
Reflection son coffee production and marketing in Moshi rural district

Josephat Stephen Itika


Rainfall probability and agricultural yield in Ethiopia 

Adugna Lemi


Private sector delivery of urban services: 
Benefits, obstacles and ways forward for public transport service in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania 

Honest Prosper Ngowi

Abstract:

POTENTIAL MONOPOLY RENTS FROM INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE TOURISM:
AN EXAMPLE FROM UGANDA’S GORILLA TOURISM

Petra Andersson, Sara Croné, Jesper Stage and Jørn Stage
 
Abstract
The economic benefits many African countries derive from international wildlife tourism are very few, especially when viewed from existing potentials in terms of resources and uniqueness. African wildlife tourism has natural barriers to entry and thus is basically a monopolistic market. However, the countries have done virtually nothing to take advantage of this situation. Rather than focusing on cost recovery or revenue maximisation, the governments should therefore aim at maximising profits from international tourism. Uganda is the case study of this paper in this regard. Data collected from a travel cost survey indicates that in 1997, even under uniform pricing, Ugandan’s profit from gorilla tracking in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park alone could have been increased by between USD 30,000 and USD 220,000 (depending on assumptions about social costs). Besides, unlike most government revenue sources, monopoly prices on international tourism do not impose deadweight losses on the domestic economy.
 

BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION, HOUSEHOLD LEVEL TREE PLANTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTHWESTERN HIGHLANDS OF ETHIOPIA

Woldeamlak Bewket
 
Abstract
 Like many developing countries, rural Ethiopia heavily depends on biofuels. This dependency has been contributing to environmental degradation and food insecurity of the people. However, a comprehensive study has not been carried out to determine the quantity of biofuels consumed and to distinguish rural households’ responses to growing scarcity of fuelwood. This would have helped the design of appropriate strategies for the development of the energy sector. This study analyses biofuel consumption patterns in four rural villages in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. The results indicate that fuelwood and cattle dung accounted for nearly 100% of the domestic energy consumption, with cattle dung contributing to some 34% of the total. Fuelwood and dung combined, the per capita biofuel consumption was estimated at 511.3 kg per annum, with some variation between villages and socio-economic groups owing to differences in physical, environmental and socio-economic factors. Despite claims by some studies, the pressure on the supply trend has affected consumption of biofuels and necessitated improvisation on the part of users. And the scarcity of wood use for various purposes has forced households to plant trees. The number of trees planted by households showed variation between villages and the different socio-economic groups, owing to various physical and human factors. This (agro) forestry practice is a good short-term solution to the existing problem of fuelwood shortage. Since the practice also embodies multiple positive implications for environmental management and agricultural production it should to be encouraged. It is worth noting here that in promoting tree planting (agro) foresters and environmental management planners should take into account local level biophysical and socio-economic realities. 
 
INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS AS  “RULES OF THE GAME”:
REFLECTIONS ON COFFEE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN MOSHI RURAL DISTRICT
 
Josephat Stephen Itika
 
Abstract
The paper contributes to the ongoing discourse in Tanzania about constraints in the agricultural sector performance by using the concept of “institutions as rules of the game” from the New Institutional Economics paradigm. Focusing on coffee, the paper analyses the surrounding regulatory framework (laws, rules, regulations, norms, practices, procedures) and their impact on coffee production and marketing as perceived by key stakeholders. Lessons from two villages where the study was conducted suggest a number of institutional constraints in production and marketing of coffee. These are traditional norms and customs on land rights, regulatory voucher system, quality culture, registration of coffee companies, tax structure and the structure of the apex union. The paper concludes that institutional framework is a major setback in realising the fruits of agricultural sector liberalisation.
 
RAINFALL PROBABILITY AND AGRICULTURAL YIELD IN ETHIOPIA
 
Adugna Lemi       
                             
Abstract
Yield variability in Ethiopian agriculture can be partly explained by rainfall. The degree of yield variability over time is changed not only by the amount of rainfall, but also by the pattern and frequency of the rainfall cycle. Mean annual rainfall is often the only index of rainfall quoted for a place for the purpose of rainfall-yield relationship analysis. For agriculture, however, the critical question is how often a place receives too little, enough or too much rain for a particular form of crop production to be carried out successfully. Using station level rainfall data from 1954-1994 and agricultural production data of major cereal crops from 1980-1994 for four provinces of Ethiopia, this study attempts to show patterns of rainfall and provide insight into the preparation of an early warning system in the country. Time series analysis techniques, Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) models are used to see the pattern of rainfall and response of yield to rainfall as well as to previous yield shocks. The results of this study show that rainfall cycle can be determined only for BELG rain in Gojjam (thirty-five years) and total rain in Harar (eleven years) and Jima (seventeen years). All other series have no cyclical component; however, drought-prone provinces show some deterministic component in the rainfall process. Results from estimation of VAR show that current levels of yield respond to previous levels of yield even more than responses to rainfall in most provinces.

PRIVATE SECTOR DELIVERY OF URBAN SERVICES:
BENEFITS, OBSTACLES AND WAYS FORWARD FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICE IN DAR ES SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA
 
Honest Prosper Ngowi

Abstract
The paper deals with private- as opposed to public-sector delivery of urban services. The focus is on the delivery of public transport (bus) services in Dar Es Salaam city in Tanzania. The main objectives of the paper are threefold: firstly, to present the benefits accruing from private sector delivery of public transport in Dar Es Salaam; secondly, to examine the obstacles experienced in the private sector delivery of public transport in the city; and thirdly, to discuss strategies that are currently underway to address some problems faced in public transport delivery. The benefits accruing from the private sector delivery of this service include, among others, more efficient, effective, competitive, innovative, reliable and generally better services. Other benefits include the creation of a substantial employment and contribution to the government coffers through payment of taxes and fees. Obstacles include government interference, high operating costs, low and constantly low bus fares, and inadequate urban transport infrastructure. Strategies that are underway to address some of the problems of public transport delivery in Dar Es Salaam are comprised of investments in Rapid Bus Transit (RBT), commissioning of large size commuter buses and development of a vision of more sustainable transport service. Recommendations given to policy and decision makers include the creation of a more supporting and the sustaining of an enabling environment for all the stakeholders in the sector to achieve a win-win situation with regard to provision and effective use of this important service in the city. 

 

Publisher: OSSREA
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