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Rwanda Journal

Rwanda Journal

Author: National University of Rwanda
Year: 2011
Abstract:

Compelling factors of Urbanization and Rural-Urban migration in Uganda

This article illustrates the policy intricacies of post-war reconstruction in contemporary Africa. It specifically examines the often neglected effects of rural-urban migration on urbanization and development in Rwanda after the genocide of 19944 Given the waves of urbanization caused by refugees returning to Rwanda, as well as by internal migration precipitated by fear of conflict and insecurity, grouped settlements termed imidugudu have been introduced by government, as an alternative means of providing facilities similar to those offered in cities, To be efficient, the imidugudu need to be well planned and obtain consistent support from the government. However, even if this were forthcoming, such a solution might not be sufficient to deal with the impact of rural-urban migration on urbanization and development, despite the overall growth in the economy. Relying upon pre-existing research, this article analyzes the determinants of rural-urban migration and their consequences for development in Rwanda. The article calls for further, more-detailed investigation of how rural-urban migration is affecting the distribution of development; in the course of reconstructing peace and furthering sustainable economic well-being in Rwandan society.

A socio economic analysis of the nature of rural-urban migration dynamics in Rwanda 1960 to 2 0 1 0

Herman Musaharal

ln this paper we argue that in the last 5 decades Rwanda has had a unique migration system which defies the conventional and received wisdom of the rural to urban unidirectional movement. Firstly rural to urban migration has been a residue of the rural to rural movement either regulated by the government or as an automatic relief of population pressure in Rwanda. Secondly the rural to urban movement of population in Rwanda after 1990: has been shaped by the recent events and the legacy of conflict. Thirdly despite the anomalous nature of migration in Rwanda its socio economic implications to urbanization and development have not been analyzed. There has been a lack of clear and detailed policy on urbanization that can mitigate negative consequences of rural to urban migration. Urbanization has been regarded as a desirable development process for development in Rwanda. While analysis should generally show that to be true, the social justice and inequality implications of the process in Rwanda have not been empirically estimated. The paper will address the following issues; How has process of rural urban migration in Rwanda in the last 50_yeans? What has population pressure and land scarcity affected the rural to urban migration and urbanization in Rwanda? How has a legacy of conflict and events of the late 1990s influenced the rural to urban migration process and what lessons can be learned for post conflict transitions? What are the magnitudes of resources allocation and use between rural and urban areas? Are Rwanda K towns parasitic on the socio economic benefits and social services delivery in Rwanda? How is the nature of equity  consequences of Rwandan urbanization process? What are the policy implications of the Rwandan analysis? It is anticipated that the paper will flesh out areas that need more data and policy investigations and offer lessons to other countries especially those in
post conflict transitions. Rwanda’s analysis will offer lessons to economies and societies that have been experiencing population pressure and resources scarcity. Methodologically the paper will offer an approach to rural-urban migration that is multidisciplinary and more comprehensive than the conventional Todaro type models.

An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among Rural Youths in Northern and Western Provinces of Rwanda Edward MUTANDWAI, Nathan KANUMA TAREMWA2, Placide UWIMANA3, Canisius GAKWANDl° and Frank MUGISHA5


The problem of rural to urban migration is a relatively old and ubiquitous phenomenon globally. However: in recent years. it has become a cause of concern at the global, regional and national levels. The unprecedented levels of urbanization characteristic to most developing countries have resulted in the movement of people from rural to urban areas subsequently resulting in the emergence of slums and informal settlements. Like many developing countries, Rwanda has been facing increasing challenges related to rural to urban migration. It is in this context that the broad objective was to analyze factors that determine rural youths ' decision to migrate to urban areas in Nyabihu (Western Province) and Burera {Northern Province}. A combination of non-probability and probability sampling methods were used to select a total of 113  for inclusion into the survey. Structured questionnaires were used as the principal data collection instruments. Secondary data was used to complement primary data collected in this study, The study was pillared on two hypotheses. Firstly, the lower the income an individual the higher the probability of migrating to urban areas. Second, the study also postulated that the desire for better employment opportunities explains the likelihood to migrate. The results of the study showed that youths who are likely to migrate are predominantly aged between [7 to ZZ years, and earn incomes of less than 34129 Ftw per month, are male, have primary education, are currently not employed. Youths migrate a number of reasons which include the need for temporary and permanent job opportunities, access to social services and infrastructure, as well as schooling opportunities, Factor analysts showed that there are three factors which are critical in rural to urban migration and these are availability of social services in rural areas, which is likely to deter youths from migrating. However, presumed stable jabs in the cities and towns coupled with an inauspicious social environment in rural areas are likely to give incentive to youths to migrate from rural to urban areas. The problem of rural to urban migration is a complex issue that requires a comprehensive holistic policy strategy emphasizing on income diversification to non-agricultural activities, vocational skills, public and private sector partnerships and management of value chains for active mainstreaming of disadvantaged youths into development processes of the country.  

A study of institutional environment and household food security at local level in Rwanda Jose A. Matha, Edward MUSABANGANJI, Celine NIWEMAHORO, Leonidas BANAMWANA Martin UWITONZE, Alphonsine MUKAMANA


The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and had security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over silt sectors of the Huye district by using structured interview schedule, as well using a case study of u rice cooperative in Huye district. Focus group discussions with all stake holders concerned with had security at local level enriched the data that we collected by other means. The general conclusion that emerges from the study is that in order to attain the had security at local level in Rwanda lat more to be done. Among other things, strengthening existing local institutions like firmer cooperatives, improving agricultural production technology, diversifying household income sources for better access. and genuine integration of food security concerns in the district development plans. The researchers come out with certain policy recommendations that may make the local level had security more sustainable which includes, among others. the orientation of the households well into the new modes of agricultural production and planning of household income. The need hr much more local level institutional support in many areas is highlighted On the whole, the study addressed the concerns of food access among rural households in Rwanda, and also the much wanted institutional support being exposed.

Redistributive Land Reform in Rwanda: The impact on Household Food Security Mrs. Alinc Mutabazi

ln 2007 the country of Rwanda started land reform in Eastern and Northern provinces with the objective of providing access to land as a means of livelihood to the landless and reducing inequality in landholdings in those regions. Based on theory and empirics, this redistribution is expected to have a positive impact on its beneficiaries particularly on household welfare. To contribute on this important debate, this study investigates the impact of land redistribution on households' food security. With data collected using household survey in July 2009 in Kayonza District, the study assessed the impact by using Dietary Diversity and Children 's Nutritional Status (Stunting, Underweight and Wasted as proxies of Food Security. The results suggested that access to land has increased the number of people with adequate food quantity compared to the period be/ore they received land. In addition, the results revealed the improvement in nutrition status of children as the impact of access to land; the number of children underweight decreased even if many of them are still stunted. This situation is not surprising because within I 8 months a child can improve in weight but not really in height. However, among the new landholders there were still a number of individuals
whose food intake fell below their minimum dietary energy requirements. Hence, this study focuses on the complementary policies to make land redistribution an efficient tool for food security.


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