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The first paper by Dr Laurence Mukuka, The Conceptual Framework for Poverty Analysis and Reduction in Zambia, argues that poverty analysis and reduction in Zambia is generally misconceived because of lack of adequate understanding of its real causes and vision. The author explains that the first decade of Zambia's independence, i.e., from 1964 to 1974, saw some relative prosperity, but the country has deterioration in the living condition so much that all the gains of which were achieved during the first decade have been reversed. Dr Mukuka traces the origins of this decline to the economic reforms of 1968 to 1972, which though politically appealing spelled economic disaster. This new economic system was characterised by mismanagement of the economy, adoption and application of inappropriate technologies, poor management and enormous waste of resources, high unemployment and underemployment, deteriorating of foreign exchange position, rising inflation, increasing public debt, high levels of poverty and inequality in the distribution of wealth and a considerable part of the social service infrastructure in a state of disrepair. Dr Mukuka further explains that in general Zambia's poverty is largely "structural". It is caused by structural biases and distortions that are inherent in the country's political, economic, educational, and cultural institutions and its relations with rich countries. The paper recommends five strategies to reduce poverty in Zambia. These are; increasing broad-based economic growth in agriculture and rural development, providing public physical infrastructure, increasing productivity of the urban micro-enterprises and informal sector, developing human resources and the need to co-ordinate, monitor and evaluate poverty reduction programs.
In the second paper on Prediction of Agricultural Production Using Census Data, Dr Henry Sichingabula uses the 1990/92 census data to assess agricultural performance and the success of various activities conducted in Zambia. According to Sichingabula in general census population and agricultural data are useful in a variety of ways including assessment of productivity, prediction of future crop production levels, assessment of drought impacts as well as in the assessment of regional development around the country. Regression approaches were used in the prediction of future crop yields, thus, demonstrating how census data can be utilised by researchers, planners and others in the country. In the paper, therefore, Sichingabula attempts a) to show typical uses of population and agricultural data, and b) to develop predictive models for agricultural production. The paper concludes that the proposed linear multiplicative model for predicting crop production in Zambia is useful for both planners and farmers.
The third paper by Mr Augustine Katotobwe titled The Privatisation of the Mines in Zambia looks at the problems and dynamics involved in the sale of copper mines. The paper traces the origins of Zambia's privatisation policy to the Second Republic's debates on the issue. These debates culminated in full implementation of privatisation in the Third Republic. Despite some feeble resistance through procrastination by those negatively affected, the privatisation policy seems to have been easily implemented in nearly all the sectors of the economy. The mining sector is the only exception to this smooth transfer of SOEs from the public to private investment. A problematic situation in the mining industry has developed as the parties concerned have had their protracted negotiations over the sale of Nchanga and Nkana mines broken down. Katotobwe suggests that other considerations besides the "low Price" advanced by the Zambian Government as the reason for the deadlock in negotiations. He argues that Zambia's socio-economic and political stability, now and in the future, depends heavily on the mining industry. The MMD Government is, therefore, finding it difficult to let these key mines go into private hands at a time when the political consequences for the ruling party and Government leaders may not be predictable. Consequently, the paper concludes that it is for political reasons and not the low price offered that the mines are proving difficult to sell as the MMD Government belatedly seems to realise that whoever controls the mines, controls the politics of Zambia. Having reached this conclusion the paper makes two suggestions. First that the mines should be sold to the people of Zambia in partnership with foreign investors, and secondly either Anglo-American or Kafue Consortium should be offered the partnership.
The next two papers, one by Mr. Excellent Hachileka A Comparative Evaluation of the Application of Economic Instruments for Sustainable Natural Management Between the Second Republic and Third republic and that by Francis Chigunta Gendering Environment Policy in Zambia deal with issues of environmental policy in Zambia.
The paper by Hachileka is a comparative review of the application and enforcement of economic instruments between the Second and Third Republics in Zambia, in view of the economic, political and policy changes that have and are still taking place in the Third Republic. The review is against the background that economic instruments are preferable to predominantly command-and-control instruments in a liberalised economy because they integrate environmental and economic policy and are efficient in their use of scarce development and management resources. There are four types of instruments used for environmental management in Zambia since independence in 1964. These are regulatory, economic, anticipatory and consultative instruments. The most used of the four instruments in both the Second and Third Republics are regulations enforced by legislation. These have since been strengthened in the Third Republic through the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act. No, 12 of 1990 which also established the Environmental Council of Zambia. Various regulatory instruments have since been enacted for pollution control and resource management for water, air, waste and noise pollution among other uses. The use of economic instruments remains uncommon for both environmental protection and natural resource management. To-date only non-compliance fees are charged to polluters who exceed the emission levels imposed by the regulations. Economic instruments in natural resource management are in the Third republic, like in the Second Republic, still only being used in form of user charges for water, energy and other metered resources. The paper concludes that no significant changes have taken place in environmental policy instruments as far as the application of economic policy instruments for sustainable natural resource management is concerned. Further, the consequences of policy failure on sustainable development are still largely the same between the Second and Third Republics. This is largely because regulatory policy instruments remain dominant in environmental and natural resources policies. The paper therefore, recommends that a more balanced mix of regulatory, economic and consultative instruments be used in the environmental protection and natural resources management policy in the country if sustainable development is to be attained. Future environmental policy reforms should be inclined towards increased use of economic instruments in view of the economic liberalisation and privatisation policies of the government.
The paper by Francis Chigunta discusses the role of women in environmental management in Zambia. The author's position is that in recent years, particularly after the MMD came into power there has been a lot of Government action on environment in Zambia. However lacking in the Government's action on environmental issues are gender issues. While Government pronouncements indicate the need for a gender affirmative policy, there has been no new gender policy, no administrative machinery and no practical action to integrate gender issues into development policies, let alone environmental policy. The primary focus of Chigunta's paper therefore is on the valuable role that rural women play in resource management through their dominant involvement in agriculture and woodfuel gathering. It focuses on the cultural, social and economic constraints which women face. It thus argues that for any meaningful resource management and sustainable development to occur there is need to integrate gender into environmental policy. This argument stems largely from the observation that the dominant role of women as farmers and as gatherers and users of woodfuel means that they have the potential of not only conserving natural resources but also of destroying them.
The next three papers, i.e. the sixth, seventh and eighth all deal with issues related to educational policy.
The sixth paper by Dr. Darlington Kalabula, Perceptions of Disability in Zambia: Implications for Educational Policies and Other Service Delivery, discusses the perceptions of disability in Zambia's Third Republic and how the mixture of foreign and local interpretations have influenced educational policy and service delivery for children and young people with disabilities or special educational needs. The paper traces the history of attempts at teaching children with disabilities which were first made in 1905 in the Eastern Province. The first schools for children with visual impairments were established in 1923 and 1929. By 1950, other schools for children with hearing and physical impairment were established by missionaries. Thereafter the Zambia Council for the Handicapped was established to continue with service delivery first under the Ministry of Labour and Social Services and in 1971 under the Ministry of Education. The paper then goes on to argue that the provision of education to the disabled has not been quite successful. Out of a population of 160,000 to 250,000 of 7-13 olds with disabilities only about 2,000 are catered for in the country's residential and integrated schools. Among some of the suggestions the author makes to improve the provision of education for the disabled are establishing a department for special education within the Ministry of Education, translating policy pronouncement into law to empower parents and children with disabilities concerning their rights and privileges, running workshops and seminars to sensitise the Zambia populace about disability and special needs and mobilise financial and human resources locally and abroad, to support special needs education.
The seventh paper University Experience as a Change Agent in Improving Managerial Capacity in Zambia's Education System by Henry J. Msangu looks at the problems of training managers in Zambia's educational system. Msangu's paper begins by making general identification of concepts in education, training, objectives and the need for effective management. He argues that to manage effectively there is need for highly trained personnel. He identifies indicators of effective and efficient management can be looked at in terms of i) incidences of dialogue with the teachers and other members of staff in relation to policy issues, ii) evidence of community mobilisation for specific plans, iii) evidence of creativity in dealing with and solving problems at School, District or College level, iv) evidence of records of the following: clear mission statement, staffing in the district, distribution of material resources in the district, educational institutions in the District according to defined criteria, gender desegregated records of pupils in the District, minutes of staff meetings and other records, evidence of utilisation of education. Msangu then examines efforts that have been made by the Government and donors through the Zambia Educational Rehabilitation Project and the University of Zambia. The author explains that the Zambia Educational Development Project (ZEDP) was a joint Ministry of Education and the International Development Agency (IDA) project. The project was established in order to reverse the continued deterioration of the education system and to sustain educational revitalisation. Among the project's objectives is to increase the capacity of the education sector to manage an increasingly complex sector in the context of greatly circumscribed resources through the strengthening of educational management and planning and through improvements in the Ministry of Education capacity for policy formulation and analysis. The University of Zambia's School of Education has also collaborated with the Ministry of Education to try to improve the managerial capabilities of inspectors of schools, heads of schools, district education officers, planners as well as provincial educational officers. While acknowledging some success in this programme Msangu also identifies a number of shortcomings. He concludes his paper by stating that for Zambia to develop the whole concept of management should be refocused. The effective delivery of education will increasingly depend on the quality of educational administration and management. School heads, education officers and inspectors need training in educational management and supervision. The Government should make appropriate training a pre-condition for appointment or promotion to managerial and supervisory positions while the University of Zambia should have tailor-made programmes to meet the Ministry of Education's needs.
The eighth paper by Mr. Joy H. Kalyalya titled Formal Schooling as an Effective Means of Promoting Democracy in Zambia focuses on formal schooling as an agent of democracy. It argues that democracy will not be deeply rooted in Zambia unless it is offered as the core of school curriculum. The paper further argues that democracy will not be effectively disseminated through the school system unless, i) the current aims of the national education are made democratic, ii) the current school curriculum and organisation are restructured in order to make them conform to the demands of democracy, iii) teachers are given orientation in democratic teaching methods and techniques of managing classroom discipline and problems iv) education managers are given orientation in democratic management skills. The paper concludes by stating that although offering democratic education through formal schooling would be hampered by opposition in the initial stages, Zambia has tremendous potential of evolving a strong democratic society.
The last paper by Dr Annie Sikwibele, Gender Relations and HIV/AIDS in Kapulaga, Mongu: Some Social Policy Implications, is based on a case study of some rural locality in Western Province of Zambia which was part of a wider study to look at gender relations in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Zambia. One of the objectives of the study was to investigate gender relations as aspects of the struggle against HIV/AIDS in Zambia, taking into account of the fact that in Africa, HIV/AIDS has been spread primarily through heterosexual relations. On the basis of a variety of sources, which included interviews, focus group discussions, observations and surveys the study established a number of facts from the study of this rural community. The first is that all the people who were interviewed were aware of HIV/AIDS and had personal knowledge of someone infected. A high proportion of the respondents considered themselves at risk with the young girls being more vulnerable to infection from elder men due to the "sugar daddy" syndrome. A high proportion also know that the disease is got through heterosexual transmission, blood transfusion, sharing razor blades, needles, syringes and pre-natal transmission from mother to child. Respondents identified the symptoms of HIV/AIDS as including: chest problems, persistent coughs, persistent diarrhoea, weight loss, malaria, high fever, vomiting, change in skin and hair colour and texture, falling hair, sores on the body, swelling of the body, heart burns, painful legs and feet and back aches. It was established that young girls and women are most at risk and responsible for its spread due to their vulnerable situation. The study further established that the community had strong partriachical structures with strong traditional beliefs about sexual roles of women and men, where women remain subordinate to men. It was generally agreed too, that women have no power to say "NO" to men, particularly when it came to sex. The author concludes the paper by making a number of recommendations. The first is the need for some co-ordinated social policy programmes, especially in health education. Secondly community based education programmes need to be developed to educate the community. Third is the need to implement some support programmes for orphans and widows. Fourthly there is need to target the much younger school age population who are not yet affected and collaborating with the NGOs, churches etc. Fifth is the need to devise functional literacy and skills training programmes that combine with health education. Finally there is need for policies and programmes aimed at assisting children from poor female headed households, who drop out from school early to contribute to family incomes and by so doing making them the most vulnerable to infection with HIV/AIDS.